Information on the history of the Institute is prepared by Alla Vadimovna Sinchuk,
                    academic secretary of IPPT of NAS of Ukraine, PhD in Engineering
   
        IPPT of NAS of Ukraine is the unique academic institution in Mykolayiv region and the unique special-purpose establishment in the post-Soviet area that is focused on the development of the theory of pulse processes of energy transformation, production of pulse sources of high density energy and related control systems, and the explorations of a pulse effect of high intensity energy flows produced on multiphase media, different materials and constructions. The researchers of the Institute also perform R&D work on making of highly efficient environmentally friendly, energy and resource saving pulse technologies and high-voltage energy equipment with subsequent introduction into domestic and foreign enterprises.

        The history of the Institute dates back to 1959 when the collective laboratory for the research of then-new phenomenon - the high-voltage electric discharge in water and the associated processes - was organized on the initiative of young enthusiasts and under the auspices of Mykolayiv City Council. Engineer L.Yutkin of Leningrad called this phenomenon an electrohydraulic effect.
        Back then, during the late 50s, pilot experiments showed wide technological prospects of an underwater electric discharge that were ascribed to electric pulse energy transformation into mechanical work. The use of the electrohydraulic effect enabled crushing and fracturing of strong non-metal materials, purposeful shaping of metal blanks, strengthening of a structure and properties of fluids.  These performance capabilities were first implemented as an engineering solution in a production of the plant "Molniya-1" designed for expanding of pipes in the grids of heat-exchange apparatuses. This plant was tested in 1962 in industrial conditions and demonstrated high operational efficiency. The results of creative strains of the youth laboratory were so convincing that by the Order No.2029-r issued by the Council of Ministers of the UkrSSR and on its base the self-financing Planning and Design Bureau of Electrohydraulics (PDBE) was founded on December 3, 1962. Its staff counted for 25 employees, and the first director was Oleksandr Petrovych Sorochyns'kyy.
        The first years after origination of the PDBE were notable for an active search for application of the electrohydraulic effect in industry, construction and agriculture.  In the light of the urgent slogan "Achieve better working conditions of a hundred thousand workers, relieve ten thousand workers from toil in refinery workshops, and bring an end to silicosis and vibration white fingers", the first pilot-scale plant "Iskra-1" for electrohydraulic knockout of rods and cleaning of casts against molding sand was made in 1964 and tested on the premises of the Black Sea Shipbuilding Yard. This time next year the updated sister plant "Iskra-2" was put into full-scale production. At that time the research themes on cleaning of casts started to develop rapidly and remain relevant to date. In 1965 the 1st Republican seminar "The Theory and Experimental Use of the Electrohydraulic Effect in Technological Processes of Production" was held, and the specialists of PDBE acquired the first inventor's certificate. In 1966 the first multipurpose pulse current generator "GIT-1" was produced; in 1967 the first research on enhancement of the efficiency rate of electrohydraulic devices was conducted; in 1968 A.P.Sorochyns'kyy defended the first thesis, and the first scientific paper was published in the journal "Electronic Treatment of Materials". In 1966 the Mykolayiv Plant of Tools and Accessories passed under the jurisdiction of the PDBE and was renamed as the Experimental plant within the PDBE's complex. In the new role the plant started to produce electrohydraulic devices and high-voltage equipment designed by the PDBE. 
        In 1969 the PDBE was headed by Grygoriy Opanasovych Gulyy whose organizational talents allowed for significant expanding of the research themes over a short period of time, thus consolidating the PDBE's position on the market of high technologies, establishing close cooperation between the PDBE and the institutes and enterprises of the USSR. Such tendencies contributed to stronger technical and personnel bases. The large-scale studies of electric, energy and hydrodynamical characteristics of the high-voltage discharge and properties of the dense low-temperature plasma, exploration of features of energy transformation of the electrical storage into the effective capacity evolved under G.O.Gulyy's guidance. In addition, the range and parametres of pulse high-voltage current and voltage sources were expanded; electrotechnical complexes were upgraded; new application spheres of the electric discharge were found.
        The year 1971 signified the first explorations in seismoacoustics which connected the PDBE with the maritime sphere for two decades. A row of unique hydroacoustic radiators were created and successfully used both in peaceful use of the World ocean and for the defensive purposes. Development of these research fields was appreciably assisted by scientific expeditions on the research vessel "Aleut" in water area of the Black sea. Some time later one more vessel was build for that purpose - more up-to-date river-sea vessel "Gipanis".
        In 1970 the management of the Planning and Design Bureau of Electrohydraulics which then was subordinated by the State Planning Committee of the UkrSSR, addressed to B.Ye.Paton asking for integration into the structure of the Academy of Sciences of the UkrSSR. This issue was considered during the session of the Bureau of Presidium of the AS of the UkrSSR; the initiative of the PDBE's management was deeply comprehended and extensively supported. The positive solution by the Bureau of Presidium of the AS of the UkrSSR and personal assistance of academician B.Ye.Paton had crucial importance: by the Decree of the Council of Ministers of the UkrSSR No.117 as of 07.03.1972 the PDBE passed under the jurisdiction of the AS of the UkrSSR and became a part of the Department of Physicotechnical Problems of Materials Science. This event definitely promoted development and formation of the PDBE as the research institution.
        In 1973 academician B.Ye.Paton personally attended the PDBE where he highlighted the necessity to carry out deeper fundamental scientific explorations after his familiarization with existing scientific and technical groundwork. Since then the theory of electrodischarge processes and fundamentals of materials science had got rapid development and practical implementation. In particular, basic regularities of an electric discharge in conductivity and low-conductivity fluids and regularities of an electric explosion of conductors were outlined. Model representations of electrodynamics, thermodynamics and hydrodynamics which were used in a uniform complex to study the electroexplosive transformation of energy were added by correct empirical relations, while the description of transient processes was amended by the similarity theory. Theoretical bases were created, and practical use of the method of integrated transformations with view of a problem of nonsteady dispersion of acoustical waves by unclosed rigid shells was specified.
Meanwhile, it was determined that periodic elastic waves of mechanical stresses driven during electrohydropulse treatment of crystals serve for great acceleration of the dislocation and sliding  mechanism of deformation, activation of dislocation displacement, thus leading to changes of the stress-deformed state, hardness and plasticity of alloys and welded joints.
        New technologies emerged, among them are electrodischarge treatment of oil and water boreholes, extra-furnace treatment of melted steel, crushing of concrete, ferro-concrete and monolithic constructions, residual stress relief in welded joints, thin-sheet forming, drinking and waste water decontamination, etc. Pulse current generators with energy to tens MJ and hundreds of different pulse high-voltage capacitors were produced. Developments by the PDBE which were shown at the international exhibitions were awarded with the diplomas and medals, the Prize of the Council of Ministers of USSR and the State Prize of UkrSSR, the Certificate of Honour of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the UkrSSR. The PDBE rapidly expanded its structure; new departments were formed, new comfortable premises were built, the laboratories were fitted with the advance research equipment to promote the new research themes. From 1977 the Experimental Manufacture Division of the PDBE has been launched. The staff was annually replenished with young specialists - graduates of leading Institutes of High Education of the country; the lion's share of them was represented by the graduates of the Kharkiv Polytechnical Institute. The number of PhD and Dr. of Science increased, as well as the published manuscripts and scientific papers. Great attention was paid to the social and economic tasks: new apartment houses and hostels were being built, and the recreation facility "Nauka" was open on the Black Sea shore. In addition, sport and art groups became available.
        In 1989 the Institute was headed by the young initiative director Oleksandr Ivanovych Vovchenko who had picked up the baton from his predecessors to guide the PDBE towards well-defined and steady enhancement of its scientific potential.
        Boris Yevgenovychh Paton's insight made sense: realization of large-scale scientific explorations in different areas, the importance of the scientific results, training of highly skilled scientific personnel, and O.I.Vovchenko's enthusiasm and persistence largely contributed to the promotion of the PDBE: in 1991 it was transformed into the Institute of Pulse Processes and Technologies of the AS of the UkrSSR. Through present, the Institute meets all requirements set to an academic institution by its level of scientific activities. 

Today to the main tendencies of scientific activities of the Institute refer:
    - the study of the pulse effect of high-intensity energy flows produced on multiphase media, various materials and constructions, and their use for development of new technologies;
    - the development of the theory of pulse processes of energy transformation, making of pulse sources of high density energy and related control systems.

        Taking into account the progress of science tendencies worldwide, the Institute is indulged into solving of first-priority fundamental problems of the present.
        The theory of underwater electric explosion which was first expressed 50 years ago has gained integrity by today. Due to mathematical statistics the action of different random stochastic factors on the processes of energy transformation at its different stages is studied. Correlations between them are specified, and the most essential factors influencing the efficiency of energy transformation are found, thus constituting the scientific basis for the further development of the methodological solutions to inverse problems of synthesis and respective mathematical models, computational methods applied for the parametres and operating modes of the nonlinear, nonlinear-parametrical and multi-circuit capacitive energy storages used in discharge pulse technologies.
        One original method of the solution to the fundamental problem of the account of the mobile and mobile permeable boundaries in a wave equation was invented and further developed. For the first time the exact analytical solutions to inverse problems for a wave equation in the areas with mobile and mobile permeable boundaries were found. These solutions were applied to the case of expansion of a cylindrical piston with finite length represented by a discharge channel in water, and also to the case with mobile boundaries in continuous, multiphase, multicomponent media in which the propagation velocity of acoustical agitations can change in a wide range. The problem of correctness of inverse problems for a wave equation with mobile boundaries is solved; all three conditions of correctness are satisfied: the available solution (obtained), uniform possibility and stability. This enables the unambiguous determination of inverse problems of a control function and wave fields in all points of a wave area with regard to inverse problem solving.
        These studies became a theoretical base for the development and optimisation of the up-to-date advanced discharge pulse technologies.
Using the electric explosion of graphitic conductors or electrodischarge treatment of organic fluids, gases and the aerosols containing carbon, the Institute develops its unique electrodischarge method of synthesis of nanostructural materials. Recent studies have revealed fundamental regularities of structure-phase transformations of these substances into nanostructures and helped to classify the treatment parametres by specific energy, growth rate and current density, by the medium of hardening and chemical additives for the synthesis of nanomaterials having different functional purposes: sorbents of hydrogen, smart antifrictional and antiwear additives, nanocarbon with ferromagnetic properties, etc.
        Fundamental physical principles of enhancement of filtration properties of natural porous materials due to the effect of electrohydropulse treatment and activation of surfactants on their structure are specified. The parametres responsible for the enhancement of adsorption of surfactants in pores and microfractures, wedging effect generation and dilatational expansion of rocks are science-based and experimentally validated. Due to such treatment the porosity of sandstones is 3 times larger, carbonates - 2.5 times, and permeability - 6 and 3 times respectively. The same method can be used to change the properties of highly resistant water-oil emulsions. It is proved that high-intensity pulse electric fields activate the solutions of surfactants added to emulsions in a small quantity, change the surface energy and structure, and also strengthen their detergent action by 80%. Thus, the process of coagulation of an aquatic phase is intensified, physical and chemical bonds in a colloid system weaken almost to its full destruction. The treatment also contributes to modified rheological characteristics of oil which starts to flow intensively from the expanded pores of rocks to the well. Scientific results of this groundwork are validated many times by commercial tests on oil wells debit increase.
        In view of the high demand for thin-sheet parts from conventionally hard-to-deform alloys applied in the automobile and aircraft construction, the research of the processes of pulse plastic deformation of these materials are extended. Dependences of the internal energy and the time of tangential stresses relief on the parametres of state and physical and mechanical properties of aluminum alloys, and also their connection with energy and power parametres of the pulse stressing process are specified. Thus, technological methods of electrohydraulic press forming which increase the deformation threshold of aluminum alloys on the average 1.7 times as compared with static treatment are justified, and the technological process of pulse-static sizing applied to large-size parts of the pipeline fixture for energy and atomic engineering with a quality class of 12-13 is created. Within the framework of the partner project with the Ford Motors Company (USA) the prototype process of press forming of large-size automobile parts from high-strength two-phase steels which are conventionally hard-to-deform by other press forming methods is developed.
        The method of heterogeneous metals aggregation in a solid state by high density pulse currents is proposed and accomplished, and hence the diffusion compounds may be obtained at lower force and temperatures in the aerial medium without protective atmospheres or vacuum.
        Over the last years a lot of applied solutions attractive for the industry of the southern sea region and the energy complex enterprises have emerged.
To meet the urgent request by the ports of Ukraine for dredging, the new technological process of crushing of strong bottom ground by the high-voltage electrochemical explosion providing for loosening of ground with strength to 40 MPa and output 3-5 m3 annually is developed. This process is totally safe for the sea flora and fauna and shore buildings. 
        For the first time in world practice the pulse corona discharge for cleaning of underwater sea bodies of fouling is used. This technological process intended for cleaning of sea gas producing platforms displays high performance of the cleaning effect - to 200 m2/h vs. 20 m2/h provided by conventional mechanical crushing.
        The Institute implemented the electrodischarge technological process of the water-coal fuel production which has considerably smaller cost of gigacalories than gas, fuel oil or coal. Such fuel mixture can be kept for 4 days and more and has 99 % completeness of combustion.
        The method of electrodischarge disintegration of silicon to a fraction less than 1mm characterised by specific energy consumption to 200 kWh/t and absence of contamination of the output fractured products with foreign inclusions is created and validated at the factories of Ukraine.
The electrodischarge method of preparation of polymetallic ore refuse which contributes to increment of thus produced copper, gold and silver from 20 to 70 % is developed for mining enterprises.
        In view of the special concern for the maintenance support of its technologies, the Institute pays great attention to making of the world-unique up-to-date, efficient pulse high-voltage current sources.
        So, the new pulse high-voltage capacitors based on the dielectric system "strong multilayer dielectric-fluid-gas" being responsible for higher short-term and continuous electric strength in operating conditions at higher temperatures and pressures are created. Best fitting materials are found for such a complex system, and its most prevailing structure is specified. In comparison with predecessors, such capacitors have 2 times greater specific energy performances and can be maintained with the 2.5 times greater charge-discharge frequency in the conditions of pulse vibrating stresses at temperatures to 100 0C and pressures to 3105 Pa at static resources and reliability.
        The theory of high-frequency transformation of energy initiated by IPPT 10 years ago has acquired its further development. Based on the analysis of electromagnetic processes by a method of logarithmic amplitude-frequency characteristics and multifactorial optimisation of functional, weight-dimensional, heat and electromagnetic characteristics of chargers, the specific weight-dimensional parametres of high-voltage pulse current generators are brought up to 10 kg/kW.
        The new generation of high-frequency high-voltage pulse power supply devices with frequency to 10 kHz, power to 10 kW, voltage from 10 to 150 kV and nanosecond pulse fronts are created. These devices produce streamer corona and volume discharges having considerable volumes (more than 100 l of plasma), which makes their use in gas cleaning systems of industrial emissions appropriate. It is proved that such treatment provides for almost 100 % removal of conventional and high-resistivity aerosols and simultaneous air ozonization.
        Totally for a 50-year-old period the staff of the Institute conducted about 570 scientific research and design studies. More than 1000 electrohydraulic devices produced in IPPT are successfully operated at the enterprises of the CIS, Japan, Sweden, Germany, Hungary, Slovakia, India, China, Cuba, Bulgaria, Romania, Spain, Korea, etc. The results of the scientific research and design studies are stated in 31 monographies, 34 collections of scientific studies, 32 preprints, 5000 papers published in the leading domestic and foreign editions. The novelty and high level of the developments produced by the Institute are witnessed by granted patents. Over the years of its existence, the Institute has acquired 1425 copyright certificates of the USSR, 240 patents of Ukraine, 121 patents of foreign countries. The specialists of the Institute defended 14 doctoral and 82 PhD theses based on the conducted research.
        The studies of the following authors: G.A.Gulyy, Dr.Sc. in Engineering, Ye.V.Kryvyts'kyy, Dr.Sc. in Engineering, B.Ya.Mazurovs'kyy, Dr.Sc. in Engineering, O.I.Vovchenko, Dr.Sc. in Engineering, V.S.Krutikov, Dr.Sc. in Physics and Mathematics, N.I.Kuskova, Dr.Sc. in Engineering, O.N.Sizonenko, Dr.Sc. in Engineering, V.M.Grabovyy, Dr.Sc. in Engineering, etc. undoubtedly contributed to the treasury of the Institute's achievements.
        On the Institute's base in association with the Admiral Makarov National University of Shipbuilding, the "Pulse Processes and Technologies" Department was organized. Since 1994 it has trained over 280 bachelors, specialists and masters. The Institute's staff is annually replenished with the graduates of this Department. Since 2007 the postgraduate study for the specialty "Processes of Physicotechnical Treatment" has been available for the top-qualification personnel.
        Since 1982 the Research School "Physics of Pulse Discharges in Condensed Medium" has been active. It is aimed at studying of physical aspects of electrical and optical discharges, physical principles of an electric explosion of conductors, properties of the nonperfect low-temperature dense plasma, diagnostics of the effect from intensive energy flows on substances, the search for promising energy sources and methods of high density energy generation. On the Institute's base, the regional centre "Ukrainian Materials Science Society" is also running.
The Institute holds biennial International scientific conferences "Physics of Pulse discharges in Condensed Medium" and "Pulse Processes in Continuum Mechanics" on a regular basis with aim to strengthen the scientific connections and the scientific information exchange with other related institutions of Ukraine and overseas.
        The research and development potential of the Institute comprises a row of unique, specially equipped laboratories for exploration of the physical processes occurring during an electric discharge; the processes of electrodischarge synthesis of nanomaterials; the processes in cores of rocks under pressure to 500 atm. at temperature to 1000; metallophysical and metallographic research activities; dynamic tests of materials; tests of power pulse capacitors, etc. The machinery makes an integral part of the Institute's technological capabilities. The Institute has its web-site www.iipt.com.ua, the Science and Research Library (127.9 thousand copies), the Scientific Archive (170.5 thousand folders), the Standards Library (23.7 thousand copies), the Patent Stock (163.4 thousand copies), the Archive of Original Engineering Documentation (500 items).

    The Institute celebrates the 50th Anniversary, occupying its active position in integration scientific space with promotion of new ideas and plans, and with hope that the newest competitive pulse technologies shall worthily contribute to strengthening of domestic economy.
INSTITUTE  OF  PULSE  PROCESSES  AND  TECHNOLOGIES

NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCE  OF  UKRAINE
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Sorochinskiy Aleksandr Petrovich
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